Tracing the history of any breed of dog is almost impossible prior to of the breed societies at about this time.
However, one can draw certain conclusions from the history of man's own evolution, campaigns, commercial
ventures and fossil remains; from these, an intelligent synthesis can be made.

Most accounts of Rottweiler history start with the Roman invasion of Germany and the crossing of the Alps by the
legions in the first century AD. Statements made to support or reject this source are difficult to prove or disprove,
but conclusions can be drawn from premises which have a measure of acceptability. One may say, without fear of
contradiction, that the term 'Rottweiler' cannot be applied to the herding-guarding dog dogs used by Roman
legionaries during the course of their stay in Germany. The Roman Influence lasted not much longer than two
hundred years, and the dogs they brought with them certainly influenced the breed, whilst the settlement they built,
das rote wil (which later became Rotwil and still later Rottweil), gave the breed the name by which it is known today.
The romans returned to Rome in the third century AD, after their defeat by the Germanic tribe known as the
Alemanni.
Bazille, An early Rottweiler authority, accepted the history that the breed is a direct descendant of the Bavarois
Bouvier, dating back to Roman times, supported by the roads built by early Romans. On the other hand, Hans Korn,
Author of the classic Der Rottweiler, is of the opinion that the breed descended partly from this early Roman dog
there from the north after the Roman invasion.

A feature that emerges very clearly in the history of the dog's evolution is that no dog was confined to a particular
country. When one refers to a British or German breed, the reference is only valid if applied to a definite and limited
time period, A dog may have originated in a particular country, but its ancestors most probably came from outside,
whilst its descendants may have emigrated to create further breeds elsewhere. The term "Pure Breed" cannot be
applied to any breed except in the very limited sense demanded by the breed or canine societies, in the context of
Pedigrees.



The City of Rottweil

No history of the breed would be complete without some reference to the city from which it derives its name and
with which, to this day, it still retains strong associations.
Five hundred years after the departure of the Romans, new conquerors, in the shape of the Franks of the holy
Roman Empire, arrived and exerted considerable influence on the area. A Christian Church was built and a new
settlement grew up. The site, like earlier Roma ones, was called wil (from villa) and, To distinguish it from others, it
was called das Rote Wil after the red colour of the tiles and bricks unearthed from earlier  Roman buildings and
reused.

The City of Rottweil and dogs are synonymous. Pointing out that the dog featured in numerous early forms AD 180,
to stone carvings featured on a chapel tower.

All of this led to increasing respect for the "Butcher's Dog," and local owners began selectively breeding them. Since
they were considered far superior to others of their type to be found in that area, the name "Rottweiler" was
bestowed upon them to distinguish them from the rest. This name has remained until the present day.

In the study of the Rottweiler. It is useful to have some idea of its antecedents, how the dog developed and how its
instincts and capacities were modified and adapted to carry out its working role. This knowledge will help us to
appreciate the modern breed and see its mental and physical characteristics in true perspective. This is the basis for
any interpretation of the standard, the correctness of which is necessary to every breeder, judge and student.

In concluding this brief historical look at the Rottweiler, any attempt to appraise the relative contributions made at
different point in time to the breed seem quite unfair and inappropriate. A superstructure is only as sound as the
foundation on which it is built, and the metaphorical extension of this would be to conclude  that the Romans
selected the ground and cleared the way for the Renaissance drovers to lay the foundations; the Swabian Butchers
built the superstructure and the finish was applied by the German Breed clubs.
VFCI STANDARD FOR ROTTWEILER
ORIGIN: Germany
UTILIZATION:  Companion, service and working dog
FCI CLASSIFICATION: Group  2 (Pinscher and Schnauzer type, Molossian type, SwissMountain- and Cattle Dogs and
other
breeds).
Section 2.1:  Molossian type, Mastiff  type. With working trial.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY:
The Rottweiler is considered to be one of the oldest dog breeds.  Its origin goes back to Roman times.  These dogs
were kept as
herder or driving dogs.  They marched over the Alps with the Roman legions, protecting the humans and driving their
cattle.  In
the region of Rottweil, these dogs met and mixed with the native dogs in a natural crossing.  The main task of the
Rottweiler
now became the driving and guarding of the herds of cattle and the defence of their masters and their property.  

This breed acquired its name from the old free city of Rottweil and was known as the Rottweil butcher’s dog’.  The
butchers
bred this type of dog purely for performance and usefulness.  In due course, a first rate watch and driving dog evolved
which
could also be used as a draught dog. When, at the beginning of the twentieth century, various breeds were needed for
police
service, the Rottweiler was amongst those tested.  It soon became evident that the breed was highly suitable for the
tasks set
by police service and therefore they were officially recognized as police dogs in 1910.

Rottweiler breeders aim at a dog of abundant strength, black coated with clearly defined rich tan markings, whose
powerful
appearance does not lack nobility and which is exceptionally well suited to being a companion,  service and working
dog.

GENERAL APPEARANCE: The Rottweiler is a medium to large size, stalwart dog, neither heavy nor light and neither
leggy nor
weedy.  His correctly proportioned, compact and powerful build leads to the conclusion of great strength, agility and
endurance.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: The length of the body, measured from the point of the sternum (breast-bone) to the
ischiatic
tuberosity, should not exceed the height at the withers by, at most, 15 %.

BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT: Good-natured, placid in basic disposition and fond of children, very devoted, obedient,
biddable and eager to work.  His appearance is natural and rustic, his behaviour self-assured, steady and fearless.  He
reacts to
his surroundings with great alertness.


HEAD:
CRANIAL REGION:

Skull: Of medium length, broad between the ears.  Forehead line moderately arched as seen from the
side.  Occipital bone well developed without being conspicuous.
Stop: Well defined

FACIAL REGION:

Nose: Well developed, more broad than round with relatively large nostrils, always black.
Muzzle: The foreface should appear neither elongated nor shortened in relation to the cranial region.
Straight nasal bridge, broad at base, moderately tapered.
Lips: Black, close fitting, corner of the mouth not visible, gum as dark as possible.
Jaws/Teeth: Upper and lower jaw strong and broad. Strong, complete dentition (42 teeth) with scissor
bite, the upper incisors closely overlapping the lower incisors.
Cheeks: Zygomatic arches pronounced.
Eyes: Of medium size, almond-shaped, dark brown in colour.  Eyelids close fitting.
Ears: Medium-sized, pendant, triangular, wide apart, set on high.  With the ears laid forward close to the
head, the skull appears to be broadened.

NECK: Strong, of fair length, well muscled, slightly arched, clean, free from throatiness, without dewlap.

BODY:

Back: Straight, strong, firm.
Loins: Short, strong and deep.
Croup: Broad, of medium length, slightly rounded.  Neither flat nor falling away.
Chest: Roomy, broad and deep (approximately 50 % of the shoulder height) with well developed forechest
and well sprung ribs.
Belly: Flanks not tucked up.



TAIL: In natural condition, level in extension of the upper line; at ease may be hanging.

LIMBS:
FOREQUARTERS: Seen from the front, the front legs are straight and not placed too closely to each other. The
forearm, seen from the side, stands straight and vertical. The slope of the shoulder blade is about 45 degrees to
the horizontal.

Shoulders: Well laid back.
Upper arm: Close fitting to the body.
Forearm: Strongly developed and muscular.
Pasterns: Slightly springy, strong, not steep.
Front feet: Round, tight and well arched; pads hard; nails short, black and strong.

HINDQUARTERS: Seen from behind, legs straight and not too close together. When standing free, obtuse angles are
formed
between the dog’s upper thigh and the hip bone, the upper thigh and the lower thigh, and the lower thigh and metatarsal.

Upper thigh: Moderately long, broad and strongly muscled.
Lower thigh: Long, strongly and broadly muscled, sinewy.
Hocks: Sturdy, well angulated hocks; not steep.
Hindfeet: Slightly longer than the front feet.  Toes strong, arched, as tight as front feet.

GAIT: The Rottweiler is a trotting dog. In movement the back remains firm and relatively stable. Movement
harmonious, steady, full of energy and unrestricted, with good stride.

SKIN: Skin on the head should be overall tight fitting. When the dog is alert, the forehead may be slightly wrinkled.

COAT:

Hair: The coat consists of a top coat and an undercoat. The top coat is of medium length, coarse, dense
and flat.  The undercoat must not show through the top coat. The hair is a little longer on the hindlegs.
Colour: Black with clearly defined markings of a rich tan on the cheeks, muzzle, throat, chest and legs, as
well as over both eyes and under the base of the tail.

SIZE AND WEIGHT :
MALES:

Height: at withers is 61 - 68 cm
61 - 62 cm is small                         
63 - 64 cm medium height
65 - 66 cm is large (correct height)         
67 - 68 cm is very large
Weight: 50 kg
BITCHES:

Height: at withers is 56 - 63 cm
56 - 57 cm is small                         
58 - 59 cm medium height
60 - 61 cm is large (correct height)         
62 - 63 cm very large
Weight: Approximately 42 kg
FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault
should
be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree.

General appearance: Light, weedy, leggy appearance.  Light in bone and muscle.
Head: Hound-type head. Narrow, light, too short, long or coarse head.  Flat forehead (lack of stop or too little stop).
Foreface: Long or pointed muzzle; split nose; Roman nose (convex nasal bridge) or dish-faced (concave nasal bridge);
acquiline
nose; pale or spotted nose (butterfly nose).
Lips: Pendulous, pink or patchy; corner of lips visible.
Jaws: Narrow lower jaw.
Bite: Pincer bite.
Cheeks: Strongly protruding.
Eyes: Light, deep set.  Also too full and round eyes; loose eyelids.
Ears: Set on too low, heavy, long, slack or turned backwards.  Also flying ears or ears not carried symmetricaly.
Neck: Too long, thin, lacking muscle.  Showing dewlap or throaty.
Body: Too long, too short or too narrow.
Back: Too long, weak; sway back or roach back.
Croup: Too sloping, too short, too flat or too long.
Chest: Flat-ribbed or barrel-shaped.  Too narrow behind.
Tail: Set on too high or too low.
Forequarters: Narrow or crooked front legs.  Steep shoulder placement.  Loose or out at elbow.  Too long, too short or
too
straight in upper arm.  Weak or steep pastern. Splayed feet.  Too flat or too arched toes.  Deformed toes.  Light
coloured nails.
Hindquarters: Flat thighs, hocks too close, cow hocks or barrel hocks.  Joints with too little or too much angulation.  
Dewclaws.
Skin: Wrinkles on head.
Coat: Soft, too short or long.  Wavy coat; lack of undercoat.
Colour: Markings of incorrect colour, not clearly defined.  Markings which are too spread out.

ELIMINATING FAULTS:

Behaviour: Anxious, shy, cowardly, gun-shy, vicious, excessively suspicious, nervous animals.
General: Distinct reversal of sexual type, i.e. feminine dogs or masculine bitches.
Teeth: Overshot or undershot bite,  wry mouth; lack of one incisive tooth, one canine, one premolar or one molar.
Eyes: Entropion, ectropion, yellow eyes, different coloured eyes.
Tail: Kink tail, ring-tail, with strong lateral deviation.
Hair: Definitely long or wavy coat.
Colour: Dogs which do not show the typical Rottweiler colouring of black with tan markings. White markings.

Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

NB : Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
Rottweiler Biography
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